Since its invention, laser technology has looked like a very promising way to cut various materials. Laser cutting in a production environment is a fast and accurate execution of many processing operations. Of course, laser equipment is also used in everyday life, but subject to a number of requirements.
Briefly how it works
Does the laser cut glass, plastic? How does it deal with both durable metal and fine fabric? To answer these questions, you should find out what laser cutting is, the principle of the laser as a cutting tool.
A laser beam is a high-energy stream with tremendous power. When it hits the surface of the workpiece, it instantly heats the material to the melting / vaporization temperature Fine focusing of the beam and high radiation density allow for local heat treatment. That is, only a small section of the workpiece is exposed to the laser, and the beam is directed at it. Particles of material are burnt, vaporized or melted and then blown out from the cutting site. The impact of the beam on the areas adjacent to the processing area is so insignificant that it does not cause physical changes in the properties of the material.
Wide range of processed materials
The laser can cut materials of various density and hardness, including metals. For cutting materials of different properties, different radiation characteristics are required, and sometimes different types of equipment. Laser cutting of metal takes place on fiber-optic machines, machines based on a mixture of gases are used for non-metallic materials. Regardless of the emitter used, the cutting principle remains the same – evaporation or burning of particles along the line of action.
Laser cuttingis in demand in woodworking, it is used for different types of wood. The laser beam can easily cut layered plywood, thin veneer, hard cork, sheet wood materials … The power of the laser for cutting wood is selected depending on the thickness and properties of the wood. The thicker and harder the workpiece, the more power should be used for cutting.
Laser technology makes it easier to cut thin fabrics, felt, felt and other nonwovens, leather, paper, cardboard.
The laser is also suitable for working with plastics and polymers, including porous and elastic ones.
The advantages of laser cutting
Laser cutting, carried out on CNC machines, has a lot of advantages that distinguish it favorably from mechanical cutting methods.
- Versatility. Laser technology is used to work with sheet, roll materials, bulk workpieces. The absence of mechanical impact on the material allows the method to be used to work even with delicate materials and fragile products.
- Minimal thermal effect on the workpiece. Localized heating strictly along the cut line does not affect adjacent areas of the material, which eliminates deformation of the products. And fine focusing of the beam allows you to cut out the smallest holes and make precise angles – both outside and inside.
- Quality. Positioning and cutting accuracy are hundredths of a millimeter. High quality is ensured by both small beam diameter and software control. The part to be cut out exactly matches the layout, the cuts are neat, which means there is no need for additional processing of the edges. It should also be noted the high repeatability of the same type of elements in the serial production of parts.
- Profitability. Precise cutting, controlled by a computer program, minimizes waste. Thanks to the ultra-thin cut lines, you can set the minimum indents between the cut parts. And the absence of the need for fixing does not require leaving margins for the fastening elements. All this leads to an economical use of material.
- Productivity. Laser cutting of wood, plastic, fabrics, sheet metal … happens at a high speed, which is positively influenced by the automation of the process.
Due to the huge list of positive qualities,laser cutting is a widely demanded technology in various industries and in everyday life. Multidisciplinary laser tool allows you to solve highly complex production tasks.